When we refer to corneal transplant, it would be more appropriate to speak of techniques, in the plural, as at the time of the there are several types of corneal transplant techniques that differ greatly to each other. The need to discover alternatives is dictated by the desire to develop surgical procedures that are less invasive. It is no secret that corneal pathologies do not always affect all of the layers of the cataract.
So why not replace the diseased layers with a transplant?
This is the direction corneal transplant surgery has taken over the last ten years and in recent years has revolutionized the surgical techniques. The traditional full-thickness transplant – perforating keratoplasty – have been joined by the so-called lamellar techniques in which a lamella, that is, a layer of the donor cornea, is transplanted.
At the time of writing, surgeons tend to use the lamellar keratoplasty technique, as it is less invasive, is associated with fewer risks and does not affect the eye bulb.